1. Соотнесите абзацы текста 1 — 7 с заголовками A — H. Один заголовок лишний.
A. Light and rotation animate pictures.
B. The way of giving life to objects.
C. The first European device for animation.
D. American and Japanese styles in animation.
E. Book animation.
F. The least expensive way of animation.
G . Ancient experiences in animation.
H. Animation can be used in movies.
The history of animation
1) It’s hard to imagine animated stories before the invention of film, but in fact the origin of moving pictures is thousands of years old. In Paleolithic cave paintings, animals were sometimes drawn with extra legs, perhaps a way to suggest movement. Another early example is a 5,000 year old vase found in Iran. In five frames, it shows a goat jumping up to eat a leaf on a tree. Later, ancient Egyptian paintings used a similar technique of telling action stories in multiple panels.
2) Modern moving images date back to 1650 with the introduction of the magic lantern invented in Venice. Of course, it wasn’t really magic. It used every-day material like candles, oil and a simple glass lens to create a lantern that projected slides on a wall in a darkened room. Sometimes the slides represented moving action. The Venetian engineer Giovanni Fontana is credited with being the inventor of the magic lantern.
3) During the 19th century many artists and inventors experimented with different ways to put pictures into motion. For example, the zoetrope consists of a cylinder with drawings on the inside wall. When the zoetrope spins, and a person looks through vertical cuts in the wall, it appears that the pictures on the inside are in motion. The word “zoetrope” means “wheel of life.” A British mathematician invented the modern zoetrope in 1833, influenced by a similar device from China from 180 A.D.
4) The first flip book was patented in 1868, though children have played with something similar ever since paper was invented. The book contains a series of action pictures that gradually change page to page. When the viewer “flips” through the pages quickly, the images appear to “move.” Today, flip books are mostly toys for children, but in the 19th century they were designed especially for adults and were sold in parks and theaters. The original Victorian flip books, now over 150 years old, are worth thousands of dollars.
5) Modern animation became possible with photographic inventions by Thomas Edison and the Lumiere brothers. An early technique was called stop-motion animation. The first short film using this technique — called “The Humpty Dumpty Circus” — was made in 1897. With this method, real objects are moved around and photographed, and then the images are put together as continuous film. In the 1960s, stop-motion animation was used to make a number of popular American TV shows. Recently it has been used to make full-length movies like “The Fantastic Mr. Fox” and “The Nightmare before Christmas”.
6) A new era in animation began in 1923 when Walt Disney opened a new studio in Los Angeles. A short film featuring Mickey Mouse was Disney’s first big hit. “Snow White and the Seven Dwarves”, the Disney studio’s first full-length film, was released in 1937. At the same time that Disney was developing his technique, Japanese animators were developing their own unique style. Anime, as Japanese animation is known, is very popular today all around the world.
7) In the last few decades, Pixar Studios has revolutionized animation with the use of CGI (computer generated imagery). With CGI, old-fashioned hand-drawing is replaced with 3-dimensional digital modeling. The technique requires a great deal of time and money, but the results can be wonderful. The first fully-computerized full-length film was “Toy Story” (1995), which is on many people’s “Best Movies Ever” list. CGI is often used in live-action films to create back-ground scenery and even characters.
2. Кратко ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста задания 1.
1) What country is the origin of the «wheel of life»?
2) When was the studio where the first cartoon about Mickey Mouse was made opened?
3) Pixar Studios began to use 3D-graphics in animation, didn’t it?
4) Who were the inventors of photographic techniques that are necessary for modern animation?
5) Were there the most ancient moving pictures in Iran or in Egypt?
6) Did only children watch animations in Victorian flip books?
3. Восстановите глагольные формы в парах предложений Direct Speech — Reported Speech.
She said: “I live in a big apartment.”
She said that she 1) _____ in a big apartment.
Maria: “Where has Jim gone?”
Maria wanted to know where Jim 2) _____.
Dan said: “I 3) _____ my sister.”
Dan said that he would help his sister.
Tim told his mother: “I am sleepy.”
Tim told his mother that he 4) _____ sleepy.
Mr. Ford said: “I don’t like fish.”
Mr. Ford said that he 5) _____ fish.
I asked: «Sam, 6) _____ you ever been to France?”
I asked Sam if he had ever been to France.
He asked: “Can we meet on Tuesday?”
He asked if we 7) _____ meet on Tuesday.
Mother asked: “Will you invite Kevin to the party?”
Mother wanted to know if we 8) _____ Kevin to the party.
4. Измените слова в скобках так, чтобы они лексически соответствовали содержанию предложений.
1) This event is an _____ (EXCEPT) in our life.
2) Their company uses a lot of _____ (DIGIT) services.
3) The _____ (COVER) of CNN channel is worldwide.
4) A new programme may have a low _____ (RATE).
5) They _____ (WEEK) discuss many actual issues.
6) You should read this _____ (SEARCH) about the influence of the Internet.
7) Are there any _____ (INTELLECT) serials on SyFy channel?
5. Ответьте развёрнуто (2 — 3 предложения) на вопросы.
1) What is your favourite TV host? Describe him/her.
2) Do you like reality shows? Why?
3) What is the funniest news you have ever heard?
4) How often do you read teen magazines? Why?
5) Is the Internet going to remove classic TV from our life? Give your opinion.